Sofia is located in the Sofia Valley with an altitude of about 550 meters on a territory of 1,311 sq. km, of which populated areas and urbanized territories occupy 245.5 sq. km, agricultural land - 509 sq. km, forest areas - 466.5 sq. km, mining areas - 40.5 sq. km, territories for transportation and infrastructure - 20.6 sq. km and watercourses and water areas - about 40 sq. km.

Sofia Valley is rich in iron ores, building materials and lignite. The building materials are sand, gravel, hearting stone, limestone and clays.

The region is rich also in mineral waters.

A number of low rivers cross the territory of Sofia. Their beds within the bounds of the city were corrected. Bigger are Iskar, Vladayska, Perlovska, Suhodolska, Slatinska, Boyanska, Bistarska and Bankyanska rivers. The main drainage artery is the valley of the Iskar River located along the meridian. Hydro-mineral resources on the territory of Sofia occupy a significant share of those of the country (15 fields with total mineral water consumption - 130 litters per second).

Black-earth troughs, alluvial-meadow and colluvial -meadow soils predominate in the plains of Sofia Valley. Cinnamon and brown forest soils are typical of the middle-mountain areas.